That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers.
Gortyn code — The Gortyn code was a legal code that was the codification of the civil law of the ancient Greek city-state of Gortyn in southern Crete. The original building was 30 m in diameter, the 12 columns of text which survive are 10 m in length and 1.
It is the longest extant ancient Greek inscription except for the inscription of Diogenes of Oenoanda, evidence suggests it is the work of a single sculptor.
The inscription has been dated to the first half of the 5th century BCE, the first fragment of the code was discovered in the s. Italian archaeologist Federico Halbherr found a further four columns of the text while excavating a site near a mill in The wall bearing the Code has now partially reconstructed.
The Great Code is written in the Dorian dialect and is one of a number of inscriptions found scattered across Crete but curiously. The Dorian language was then pervasive among Cretan cities such as Knossos, Lyttos, Axos, the Code stands with a tradition of Cretan law, which taken as a totality represents the only substantial corpus of Greek law from antiquity found outside Athens.
The code makes legal distinctions between different social classes, free, serf, slave and foreigner social statuses are recognized within the document. The code provides a measure of protection for individuals prior to their trial, persons bringing suit are prohibited from seizing and detaining the accused before trial.
Violations are punishable by fines, which depending on the status of the detained individual. Rape under the code is punished with fines, the fine is largely determined by the difference in social status between the victim and the accused.
A free man convicted of raping a serf or a slave would receive the lowest fine, adultery is punished similarly to rape under the code but also takes into consideration the location of the crime. The code dictates higher fines for adultery committed within the household of the father, husband or brother.
Fines also depend on whether the woman has committed adultery. The fines are levied against the involved in the adultery. The code does not provide for the punishment of the female, the Gortyn law code grants a modicum of property rights to women in the case of divorce 2. The black marble paving and modern concrete enclosure of the Lapis Niger overlie an ancient tomb or altar, the superstructure monument and shrine may have been built by Julius Caesar during his reorganization of the Forum and Comitium space.
Alternatively, this may have been done a generation earlier by Sulla during one of his construction projects around the Curia Hostilia, the site was rediscovered and excavated from to by Italian archaeologist Giacomo Boni. It is constructed on top of a sacred spot consisting of much older artifacts found about 5 ft below the present ground level, the name black stone may have originally referred to the black stone block or it may refer to the later black marble paving at the surface.
Located in the Comitium in front of the Curia Julia, this structure survived for centuries due to a combination of reverential treatment, the site is believed to date back to the Monarchy of Rome.
The inscription refers to either a king, or to the rex sacrorum, at some point, the Romans forgot the original significance of the shrine. This led to several conflicting stories of its origin, the earliest writings referring to this spot regard it as a suggestum where the early Kings of Rome would speak to the crowds at the forum and to the senate.
The two altars are common at shrines throughout the early Roman or late Etruscan period, the Lapis Niger is mentioned in an uncertain and ambiguous way by several writers of the early Imperial period.
They do not seem to know which old stories about the shrine should be believed, in November heavy rain damaged the concrete covering that has been protecting the Vulcanal and its monuments since the s. An awning now protects the ancient relics until the covering is repaired, unfortunately, the nature of the coverings and ongoing repairs makes it impossible to see the Lapis Niger which is several meters underground.
The Lapis Niger went through several incarnations, the initial versions were destroyed by fire or the sacking of the city and buried under the slabs of black marble. It is believed this was done by Sulla, however, it has also argued that Julius Caesar may have buried the site during his re-alignment of the Comitium.
A U-shaped altar of which only the base survives, was added some time later. In front of the altar are two bases, which may also have been added separately from the main altar. The antiquarian Verrius Flaccus, a contemporary of Augustus, described a statue of a resting lion placed on each base, also added at another period was an honorary column, possibly with a statue topping it.
Archaeological excavations revealed various dedicatory items from vase fragments, statues and pieces of animal sacrifices around at the site in a layer of deliberately placed gravel, all these artifacts date from very ancient Rome, between the 5th and 7th centuries BC.
The second version, placed when the first version was demolished in the 1st century BC to make way for development in the forum, is a far simpler shrine 3. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine.
Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers.
It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance.An Identity History Summary Check—often referred to as a criminal history record, a police background clearance, police/good conduct certificate, or a “rap sheet”—is a listing of certain.
When you sign the form that grants a future employer the right to access your personal data in the course of a background check, that information can be included--down to the paycheck.
You can (and should) go to that link and request a copy of what they have on file for . Making Microsoft Word’s spell and grammar check work for you The best way to make Microsoft (MS) Word’s spell check and grammar check work for you is to customize it to meet your needs.
The default settings are not usually best for formal writing. Call and text history logging is part of an opt-in feature for people using Messenger or Facebook Lite on Android. This helps you find and stay connected with the people you care about, and provides you with a better experience across Facebook.
The purpose of this guide is to walk a high school student through an easy step-by-step process of writing an historical essay. Writing an essay for history is not necessarily the same as it . National History Day® offers students a variety of resources to help in the creation of National History Day projects.
From Google+ Hangouts to an Annotated Bibliography Guide, the student resources page has helpful information for every step of your National History Day project.